If a child curses his friend, you can ask him: “What is this, a method of dealing with those who are wrong?”, “Can you tell your mother when she is wrong?”.
When punishment is inevitable, it is necessary to separate oneself and punishment: it is not necessary to show the child one’s own indignation, that is, one should not be a “judge”, but simply an exponent of social norms.
Psychological aspects of moral education
Every social environment has its own rules and ideas about what is good and what is bad. From a socio-psychological point of view, morality is a well-known form of social behavior developed in the interests of society. The age of crises is the age of moral crisis.
Moral behavior arises on the basis of innate instinctive reactions and is produced under the influence of the environment. Thus, moral behavior is behavior brought up by the social environment. Moral action in its simplest form is to increase attention, through which the mind retains a certain idea.
There is a flexible connection between intellect and moral behavior: mental development is a favorable condition for moral education, but high intelligence is not a guarantee of moral behavior.
From a psychological point of view, to teach morality, to read sermons on morals is meaningless. Moral education should be completely imperceptible in the general methods of behavior established and regulated by the environment. Neither the teacher nor the student should notice that it is a question of education and training of morals. Moral behavior will be associated with the free choice of its social forms.
Spinoza argued that if a person avoids something on the grounds that it is bad, then he acts like a slave. A free person avoids the same thing because something else is good.
James thought that one should always proceed not from evil but from good: one should teach children to act from the point of view of good.
In the psychological sense, the moral is always free. Chastity, bought at the price of fear, pollutes the soul worse than debauchery, because it causes in the child’s psyche a struggle between needs and slavish fear. It is necessary to teach a child to do something not out of fear, but out of the fact that there is a better choice.
By warning the child against what he should not do, we fix his attention on this act, and therefore push him to perform this action. There is no better way to break a glass in a child’s hands than to constantly remind her, “Look, don’t break!” Any awareness of any phenomenon contains a known motor impulse, which is especially strong in a child. And if the consciousness of the right act does not guarantee its implementation, the consciousness of the wrong – contributes to it.
Moral imperfection is more likely to come from experience. This is a lack of adaptive capabilities and strengths of the child to the conditions of the environment, strengths and capabilities of the child. Rather, it is not punitive measures that are needed here, but “double social attention and quadrupled educational influence” (LS Vygotsky). An immoral act is a child’s conflict with the environment. It turns out that we need an environment in which the child will be instilled with forms of communication with him and where he will adapt to the conditions of existence.
Authoritarian imposition of the principles of morality is practically useless and meaningless. The moral rule must be internal. To bring up means to organize the child’s life, to take care of social ties that should permeate the environment. But as long as the environment itself conceals insoluble contradictions, we will face undesirable forms of behavior. In general, moral education is the reverse side of free education, which takes place within the general educational plan.
In psychology, there is one interesting concept on the problem of moral development of man. This is L. Kohlberg’s concept of the stages of human moral development. The scientist conducted a study, the results of which made some generalizations about the gradual development of morality and its types.
Level 1 – premoral (typical for children aged four to ten years). Judgments are made and determined by external circumstances, the views of other people are not taken into account:
Stage 1 – judgments are made depending on the consequences of the act: what he deserves – encouragement or punishment;
Stage 2 – judgments are made according to the benefits that can be derived from the act. Personal interest is taken into account here.
2nd level – conventional (10-13 years). At this level, a person, evaluating the actions and deeds of others and himself, adheres to social norms and social roles and takes into account how other people will evaluate the act:
Stage 3 – the judgment is based on whether the act will receive approval from other people;
Stage 4 – the judgment is made on the basis of respect for power, laws and the existing order.
Level 3 – postconventional (from 13 years). This is the level of “true” morality, when a person judges his behavior based on his own criteria, which he develops independently. This level of moral development requires a fairly high level of development of mental thinking:
Stage 5 – the act may be justified in terms of human rights: some social laws in emergency situations may be violated;
Stage 6 – the act is regarded as “correct” if dictated by human conscience and committed in the name of the value of life. Other people’s laws, rules, and opinions take a back seat.
In his work, Kohlberg noted that, according to his data, less than 10% of people over 16 reach the sixth stage.
Author: M. Rozenova
Pedagogical techniques, using which, teachers will be able to win the trust of children
Develop a culture of achievement. Contribute to the creation of conditions in which learning will be exciting for children, and asking questions will be perfectly normal for them. Find challenging but achievable goals for your students, and then come up with creative ways that will lead them to achieve those goals with interest. For example, if you teach them the units of measurement adopted in Ancient Egypt, arrange a competition in the spirit of the American game “Jeopardy”. Include your children’s interests in the curriculum. Practical classes, long-term projects and group assignments are a great way to involve your students in the learning process. Help them find a connection between the material being studied and very real situations. For example, if you tell children about Thomas Edison, have each of them come up with and create their own invention. And then organize a fair of inventors, where students can impress each other with their creativity. Support your students. For your students, the kind words you say mean much more than you can imagine. Identify the benefits of each and your personal growth area, and then let the children feel that you are supporting them on this exciting learning journey. Encourage not only excellent students, but also those students who demonstrate diligence and success in mastering the subject. When children actually feel your support, they will become more active in learning. Encourage parental involvement. Tell your students’ parents how they can participate in their children’s learning. For example, parents can integrate into the school environment by joining a parent committee, or remain as volunteers. They can also offer self-support at home, making sure that the children go to class to complete their homework. Make the school a safe area. In order to concentrate well during classes, students must perceive the school as a completely safe place. By gradually introducing disciplinary rules, you can make the school environment as safe as possible. Make sure your children trust you and know that if they have any problems with a potential hazard, they will be able to tell you everything. Help the children get more practice. Encourage your students to participate in extracurricular activities. Use all possible ways to form and strengthen a support system between peers and teachers, whether it is the creation of sports teams or the use of service organizations. This, in turn, will help your children become more involved in the learning process during lessons.
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In the conditions of catastrophes and natural disasters, neuropsychiatric disorders in a large part of the population are manifested in the range from a state of maladaptation and neurotic, neurosis-like reactions to reactive psychoses. Their severity depends on many factors: age, sex, level of initial social adaptation; individual characterological features; additional factors at the time of the catastrophe (loneliness, the presence of children, sick relatives, their own helplessness: pregnancy, illness, etc.). These facts lead us to say that issues related to the provision of psychological assistance in emergencies can no longer remain within the same department, but acquire state importance.
Experience shows that leaders who make responsible government decisions sometimes do not know, do not understand and do not take into account the psychological patterns and socio-psychological phenomena that accompany the development of events in extreme buy a comparison essay now situations. Such decisions and actions lead to an increase in psychological and social problems, so it is extremely important to ensure the psychological security of the population to increase the psychological literacy of regional leaders, law enforcement agencies (representing the state in the minds of people).
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