Truth Frequency Radio


Feb 14, 2013

Sharp increase in Fukushima doctors who don’t feel well physically since 3/11 — More than 3 times as many now say their health condition is not good

ENE News

Published: February 11th, 2013 at 11:48 pm ET

Source: FRCSR (Fukushima Radioactive Contamination Symptoms Research) Newsletter
Date: February 10, 2013

[…] 19.4% of Fukushima physicians answered that their “physical state isn’t well.” 14.1% of Miyagi physicians and 12.8% of Iwate physicians answered similarly. In particular, the percentage of Fukushima physician, 19.4%, is 3.5 times more than pre-311. […]

The Japan Medical Association Research Institute (JMARI), which conducted the survey, suggested that “These physician from three Tohoku prefectures have been working hard and long hours due to lack of physicians. In Fukushima they might be affected by stress caused by Tokyo Electric Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.” […]

(From a Kyodo article dated February 10, 2013)

Fukushima Diary summarized the Japan Medical Association Research Institute’s findings:

According to Japan Medical Association Research Institute, 19.4 % of Fukushima doctors answered “Their health condition is not good” for the questionnaire. The ratio used to be 5.6% before 311. […]

The research was conducted from late August to mid September of 2012. […]

See also: Fukushima Woman Warns of Cover-up: People are talking about nose bleeds and coughing that won’t end — Nurses tell patients: Stay quiet, don’t mention radiation to doctor (VIDEO)

“Hurry Up and Die:” Why No Babies Means No Future for Japan

by Eric Metaxas | Tokyo, Japan | LifeNews.com | 2/12/13 12:19 PM
Taro Aso, Japan’s finance minister, has only been on the job for a month but he’s already stirred up enough controversy to last a lifetime.

In January, he made headlines around the world when he told a panel on social security reforms that the elderly should be permitted to “hurry up and die.” That is the kind of comment that both causes great offense and hits too close to home.

It hits too close to home because much of Japan’s ever-more-dire fiscal problems can be traced to the country’s demographics. But the problem lies at the beginning of life, not the end.

To put Aso’s comments in context, there are several things you need to know about Japanese demographics and its economic impact. First of all, nearly a quarter of Japan’s population is over sixty-five. That percentage is projected to rise to nearly 40 percent by 2050.

Also, forty percent of Japanese households today receive cash payments, virtually all of which go to those over the age of 65. And “households” increasingly consist of single elderly persons living and, increasingly, dying alone: nearly 10 percent of Japanese households today – 4.6 million in total – fit this description.

The cost of caring for its elderly is a large part of why Japan’s debt-to-GDP ratio is an astounding 229 percent, nearly 2½ times that of the United States.

As the economist Herbert Stein famously said, “If something cannot go on forever, it will stop,” and Japan’s borrowing money to care for a rapidly-aging population cannot go on forever.

The question is: How will it stop? Calling elderly patients unable to feed themselves “tube people” and saying that “the problem won’t be solved unless you let them hurry up and die” is not only offensive and cruel, it misses an important point: Japan is getting older because the Japanese have stopped having children.

Full Article

 

Fukushima Worker: They are wearing tungsten vests when outside Reactor 3

Published: February 11th, 2013 at 5:15 pm ET

ENE News

Feb. 9, 2013 tweet by @Happy11311 translated by EXSKF:

In order to compliment the remote work, visual inspection is necessary. So, workers wearing heavy tungsten vests take turns to go up on the platform, and communicate with the remote control operators to carry out the work. Workers who go up on the platform are exposed to significant amount of radiation. […]

Tweet translated by Fukushima Diary:

To support camera, we absolutely need visual observation. Human workers with heavy tungsten vest step up on assembly base by turns. They communicate with remote controlling operators. Those workers are severely exposed on the assembly base.

See also: Footage of large piece of debris dropping into Fukushima Unit 3 fuel pool during snowstorm (VIDEO)

Video: Fukushima child has radioactivity of 6,000 disintegrations per second inside body

Published: February 12th, 2013 at 10:40 am ET

ENE News

Follow-up to: Top Radiation Expert: 50 Bq/kg in humans leads to irreversible lesions in vital organs (VIDEO)

Title: 福島県伊達市の子供のWBCの結果 6000 Bq/Body 検出
Source: FFTV
Author: matufuji1216 さんのチャンネル
Date: Feb 10, 2013

Video Description (Google Translation)

It is a video of a program meeting to consider the aging Fukushima nuclear power plant on February 10, is doing. (Kai radioactivity measurement project to consider the aging Fukushima nuclear power plant) Mr. Kazumasa Aoki is a result of the child’s WBC Date City, Fukushima Prefecture, 6000 Bq* / body is around 7 minutes and 37 seconds talking to have been detected.

Summary Translation by Fukushima Diary

According to citizen’s organization for Fukushima effect, 6,000 Bq/body was measured from a child in Da-te city. The child has been living in Da-te city since 311.

Da-te city government conducted whole body counter test for children. […]

*1 becquerel [Bq] represents a rate of radioactive decay equal to 1 disintegration per second

Watch the video here

福島県伊達市の子供のWBCの結果 6000 Bq/Body 検出

Pentagon Coverup: U.S. Yokosuka Naval Base Evacuated Following Fukushima Disaster

“U.S. military is still keeping quiet about” it — Women and children ordered to evacuate base 300 kilometers from Fukushima when radiation alarms went off after 3/11

Global Research, January 29, 2013
ASAHI SHIMBUN and ENENEWS
radiation3by Hiroyoshi Itabashi and Hidefumi NogamiBetween late on March 14, 2011, and early the next morning, a top secret diplomatic cable arrived at the Foreign Ministry. […]

“The United States has made various preparations to deal with the nuclear accident. The president is also very concerned,” the cable went on to say.

By invoking the White House, [Adm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff] impressed upon Japanese Embassy officials that not just the U.S. military but the entire U.S. government was worried about how the situation was developing. […]

At 7 a.m. [on March 15], a situation arose which the U.S. military is still keeping quiet about.

At Yokosuka Naval Base, which lies about 300 kilometers from the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, alarms went off indicating an increase in radiation levels. All women and children on the base were immediately ordered to evacuate. […]

U.S. government officials who were notified became very concerned because of the possibility that the Yokosuka Naval Base, considered of major strategic importance in East Asia, would become inoperable if the situation at the Fukushima plant worsened. […]

 

70,000 US Service Personnel Exposed To Radiation: Operation Tomodachi 3/11

Published on Feb 9, 2013

Nuked Radio with RadChick // Episode 91 air date February 5th, 2013

Operation Tomodachi was a humanitarian mission conducted in Japan after the 9.0 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster that began March 11th, 2011 and lasted 80 days. 70,000 US servicemen & women from the Navy, Airforce, Army & Marines delivered food, blankets & water in areas of devastation. What they didn’t know was the severity of radiation exposure they received since TEPCO refused to acknowledge the extent of what was happening at the Fukushima plant. A registry was created to track subsequent health problems by the Department of Defense, but that program was recently abandoned. As many servicemen and women have already begun to exhibit severe health issues a lawsuit was filed in San Diego Federal Court against TEPCO by Environmental Law Attorney Paul Garner, to establish a medical fund for the servicemen & women who were involved in this operation as well as their families in Japan. We speak to Mike Seybourn about what it was like to work in a highly radioactive environment and what the future may hold for he and his family in terms of health. Paul Garner also joins us to discuss the lawsuit, dealing with TEPCO, and what kind of problems his clients are having.

If you were involved in Operation Tomodachi and have questions or concerns about your health status please contact Paul Garner at 760.600.0081 or email him at [email protected] or his associate [email protected]

******Please feel free to remix and share this video on all social media*******

Nuked Radio with RadChick airs Tuesday & Thursday @ 1-2 pm est on UCY.tv

An archive of previous shows can be found at: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=…

The article I referenced about Iodine particles in rain in the Pacific Northwest can be found here:
http://enenews.com/san-francisco-bay-…

http://enenews.com/fukushima-forecast…

http://enenews.com/radiation-counter-…

http://enenews.com/fukushima-forecast…

http://enenews.com/latest-forecast-sh…

The USGS found fallout from Fukushima in every soil sample tested, reported it, and then stopped testing April 5 2011…obviously this study needs to be ongoing:
http://bqs.usgs.gov/fukushima/

ENENEWS covers interview: http://enenews.com/serviceman-after-f…

Previous video analysis of decontamination procedures: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4-NbRD…

Interesting story from the BBC about atmospheric testing veteran who flew through a mushroom cloud and got cancer 7 times: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/0/20105140

 

U.S. government to allow radioactive waste metals to be ‘recycled’ into consumers products like belt buckles, silverware

radioactive
Thursday, February 07, 2013 by: Ethan A. Huff, staff writer
(NaturalNews) The federal government is currently in the process of trying to get rid of tens of thousands of tons of radioactive scrap metal it has accumulated over the years from various nuclear testing and wartime activities. And a recent proposal made by the U.S. Department of Energy(DOE) would lift existing restrictions on the recycling and reuse of this nuclear waste, allowing it to be formulated into everyday consumer products like belt buckles, silverware, and even surgical devices used by medical personnel on ill patients.The shocking proposal comes more than a decade after DOE first tried to foist this growing stock of nuclear waste onto the American public back in the late 1990s. Back in 2000, Congressman Ed Markey from Massachusetts reportedly influenced then-Energy Secretary Bill Richardson to reinstate a ban that was temporarily lifted on the unmitigated recycling and reuse of radioactive waste metals in consumer products. But now, DOE is trying once again to secretly dispose of this radioactive waste stock by allowing scrap companies to sell it to consumer product manufacturers.

“A Department of Energy proposal to allow up to 14,000 metric tons of its radioactive scrap metal to be recycled into consumer products was called into question today by Rep. Ed Markey (D-Mass.) due to concerns over public health,” wrote Rep. Markey in a recent news brief about the issue. “In a letter sent to DOE head Steven Chu, Rep. Markey expressed ‘grave concerns’ over the potential of these metals becoming jewelry, cutlery, or other consumer products that could exceed healthy doses of radiation without any knowledge by the consumer.”

If granted its request, DOE could soon be responsible for triggering the widespread poisoning of the public with even more low-dose radiation via metal-based consumer products. Such products include not only cutlery and jewelry, but also automobiles, city buses, coffee makers, toasters, braces for teeth — practically anything that contains metal could end up being tainted with low-dose radiation as a result of DOE’s efforts.

 

Government to Dispose of Radioactive Waste By Putting It In Our SILVERWARE

114982596706602958 cAlWuJMP b Government to Dispose of Radioactive Waste By Putting It In Our SILVERWAREwww.andrelassen.com*

Department of Energy Wants to Let Radioactive Scrap Metal Back into Consumer Products

The overwhelming scientific consensus is that any amount of radiation – no matter how small – can cause cancer and other serious health effects.

(Current safety standards are based on the ridiculous assumption that everyone exposed is a healthy man in his 20s – and that radioactive particles ingested into the body cause no more damage than radiation hitting the outside of the body. In the real world, however, even low doses of radiation can cause cancer. Moreover, small particles of radiation – called “internal emitters” – which get inside the body are much more dangerous than general exposures to radiation. See this and this. And radiation affects small children much more than full-grown adults.)

But the Department of Energy – the agency which is responsible for the design, testing and production of all U.S. nuclear weapons, promotes nuclear energy as one of its core functions, which has been covering up nuclear accidents for decades, and has used mutant lines of human cells to promote voodoo, anti-scientific arguments – proposes letting radiation into our silverware.

Counterpunch notes:

Even the deregulation-happy Wall St. Journal sounded shocked: “The Department of Energy is proposing to allow the sale of tons of scrap metal from government nuclear sites — an attempt to reduce waste that critics say could lead to radiation-tainted belt buckles, surgical implants and other consumer products.”

Having failed in the ‘80s and ‘90s to free the nuclear bomb factories and national laboratories of millions of tons of their radioactively contaminated scrap and nickel, the DOE is trying again. Its latest proposal is moving ahead without even an Environmental Impact Statement. Those messy EISs involve public hearings, so you can imagine the DOE’s reluctance to face the public over adding yet more radiation to the doses we’re already accumulating.

Congressman Markey writes:

A Department of Energy proposal to allow up to 14,000 metric tons of its radioactive scrap metal to be recycled into consumer products was called into question today by Rep. Ed Markey (D-Mass.) due to concerns over public health. In a letter sent to DOE head Steven Chu, Rep. Markey expressed “grave concerns” over the potential of these metals becoming jewelry, cutlery, or other consumer products that could exceed healthy doses of radiation without any knowledge by the consumer. DOE made the proposal to rescind its earlier moratorium on radioactive scrap metal recycling in December, 2012.

The proposal follows an incident from 2012 involving Bed, Bath & Beyond stores in America recalling tissue holders made in India that were contaminated with the radio-isotope cobalt-60. Those products were shipped to 200 stores in 20 states. In response to that incident, a Nuclear Regulatory Commission spokesperson advised members of the public to return the products even though the amount of contamination was not considered to be a health risk.

This is not the first time this has happened.

As the Progressive reported in 1998, radioactive scrap metal was ending up in everything from silverware to frying pans and belt buckles:

The Department of Energy has a problem: what to do with millions of tons of radioactive material. So the DOE has come up with an ingenious plan to dispose of its troublesome tons of nickel, copper, steel and aluminum. It wants to let scrap companies collect the metal, try to take the radioactivity out, and sell the metal to foundries, which would in turn sell it to manufacturers who could use it for everyday household products: pots, pans, forks, spoons, even your eyeglasses.

You may not know this, but the government already permits some companies under special licenses, to buy, reprocess and sell radioactive metal: 7,500 tons in 1996, by one industry estimate. But the amount of this reprocessing could increase drastically if the DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the burgeoning radioactive metal processing industry get their way.

They are pressing for a new, lax standard that would do away with special permits and allow companies to buy and resell millions of tons of low-level radioactive metal.

***

The standard the companies seek could cause nearly 100,000 cancer fatalities in the United States, by the NRC’s own estimate.

(A couple of years later, Congressman Markey successfully banned most radioactive scrap … but now DOE is trying to bring it back.)

Radioactive scrap is a global problem. As Bloomberg reported last year:

“The major risk we face in our industry is radiation,” said Paul de Bruin, radiation-safety chief for Jewometaal Stainless Processing, one of the world’s biggest stainless-steel scrap yards. “You can talk about security all you want, but I’ve found weapons-grade uranium in scrap. Where was the security?

More than 120 shipments of contaminated goods, including cutlery, buckles and work tools such as hammers and screwdrivers, were denied U.S. entry between 2003 and 2008 after customs and the Department of Homeland Security boosted radiation monitoring at borders.

The department declined to provide updated figures or comment on how the metal tissue boxes at Bed, Bath & Beyond, tainted with cobalt-60 used in medical instruments to diagnose and treat cancer, evaded detection.

***

The general public basically isn’t aware that they’re living in a radioactive world,” according to Ross Bartley, technical director for the recycling bureau, who said the contamination has led to lost sales. “Those tissue boxes are problematic because they’re radioactive and they had to be put in radioactive disposal.”

Abandoned medical scanners, food-processing devices and mining equipment containing radioactive metals such as cesium-137 and cobalt-60 are picked up by scrap collectors, sold to recyclers and melted down by foundries, the IAEA says.

Dangerous scrap comes from derelict hospitals and military bases, as well as defunct government agencies that have lost tools with radioactive elements.

Chronic exposure to low doses of radiation can lead to cataracts, cancer and birth defects, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A 2005 study of more than 6,000 Taiwanese who lived in apartments built with radioactive reinforcing steel from 1983 to 2005 showed a statistically significant increase in leukemia and breast cancer.

***

India and China were the top sources of radioactive goods shipped to the U.S. through 2008, according to the Department of Homeland Security. Bartley, a metallurgist who has tracked radioactive contamination since the early 1990s, said there’s no evidence the situation has improved.

***

Two years after an Indian scrap-metal worker died from radiation exposure, the world’s second-most populous country hasn’t installed alarms, the Ministry of Shipping said in December.

***

The same thing could easily happen again tomorrow,” said Deepak Jain, 65, who owns the yard where the worker died. “We have no protection. The government promised a lot, but has delivered absolutely nothing.”

Indeed, we are being bombarded with low-level radiation from all sides:

  • In Japan, radioactive crops are being mixed into non-irradiated foods

(The government has even treated some people as guinea pigs.)

What can we do? Counterpunch notes:

You can tell the DOE to continue to keep its radioactive metal out of the commercial metal supply, commerce, and our personal items. You can demand a full environmental impact statement. Comment deadline is Feb. 9, 2013. Email to: [email protected] (with an underscore after “scrap_”). Snail mail to: Jane Summerson / DOE NNSA / PO Box 5400, Bldg. 401K. AFB East / Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185

* This photo is used only for illustrative purposes and does not mean to imply that this highly imaginative silver cutlery set is poisonous. We borrowed the photo under what might be called ‘creative license’ under the protection of ‘fair use’, to effectively draw your attention to this important news. For more information about the work of this artist, please visit www.andrelassen.com.

Needed: Recruits of All Ages for Medical Research

MONDAY, Feb. 4 (HealthDay News) — Advances in science and health care rely on public participation in research, but only 11 percent of adults and 5 percent of children in the United States have ever participated in medical studies, according to a new survey.

That works out to about 20 million adults and about 3 million children, said the University of Michigan researchers.

The national survey of 2,150 households also found that 64 percent of adults said they were aware of opportunities to participate in medical research, while only 12 percent of parents said they knew about opportunities for their children to participate.

Race/ethnicity were not related to whether adults or children had been part of medical research or were aware of opportunities to participate, according to the study in the January issue of the journal Clinical and Translational Science.

“Our study indicates that public awareness of opportunities, and the match of research needs with potential participant characteristics, potentially limit enrollment,” lead author Dr. Matthew Davis, an associate professor of pediatrics and internal medicine at the University of Michigan Medical School, said in a university news release.

“Researchers and institutions need to spread the word more effectively, to help people know about research opportunities that are a good fit for them,” added Davis, who is also an associate professor of public policy at the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy at the university.

Full Article

Human radiation experiments

Researchers in the United States have performed thousands of human radiation experiments to determine the effects of atomic radiation and radioactive contamination on the human body, generally on people who were poor, sick, or powerless.[52] Most of these tests were performed, funded, or supervised by the United States military, Atomic Energy Commission, or various other US federal government agencies.

The experiments included a wide array of studies, involving things like feeding radioactive food to mentally disabled children or conscientious objectors, inserting radium rods into the noses of schoolchildren, deliberately releasing radioactive chemicals over U.S. and Canadian cities, measuring the health effects of radioactive fallout from nuclear bomb tests, injecting pregnant women and babies with radioactive chemicals, and irradiating the testicles of prison inmates, amongst other things.

Much information about these programs was classified and kept secret. In 1986 the United States House Committee on Energy and Commerce released a report entitled “American nuclear guinea pigs : three decades of radiation experiments on U.S. citizens”.[53] In the 1990s Eileen Welsome‘s reports for The Albuquerque Tribune prompted the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, created by executive order of president Bill Clinton. It published results in 1995. Welsome later wrote a book called The Plutonium Files.

Radioactive iodine experiments

In 1953, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) ran several studies on the health effects of radioactive iodine in newborns and pregnant women at the University of Iowa. In one study, researchers gave pregnant women from 100 to 200 microcuries (3.7 to 7.4 MBq) of iodine-131, in order to study the women’s aborted embryos in an attempt to discover at what stage, and to what extent, radioactive iodine crosses the placental barrier. In another study, they gave 25 newborn babies (who were under 36 hours old and weighed from 5.5 to 8.5 pounds (2.5 to 3.9 kg)) iodine-131, either by oral administration or through an injection, so that they could measure the amount of iodine in their thyroid glands.[54]

In another AEC study, researchers at the University of Nebraska College of Medicine fed iodine-131 to 28 healthy infants through a gastric tube to test the concentration of iodine in the infants’ thyroid glands.[54]

In a 1949 operation called the “Green Run,” the AEC released iodine-131 and xenon-133 to the atmosphere which contaminated a 500,000-acre (2,000 km2) area containing three small towns near the Hanford site in Washington.[55]

In 1953, the AEC sponsored a study to discover if radioactive iodine affected premature babies differently from full-term babies. In the experiment, researchers from Harper Hospital in Detroit orally administered iodine-131 to 65 premature and full-term infants who weighed from 2.1 to 5.5 pounds (0.95 to 2.5 kg).[54]

From 1955 to 1960 Sonoma State Hospital in northern California served as a permanent drop off location for mentally handicapped children diagnosed with cerebral palsy or lesser disorders. The children subsequently underwent painful experimentation without adult consent. Many were given irradiated milk, some spinal taps “for which they received no direct benefit.” 60 Minutes Wednesday learned that in these fifteen years, the brain of every cerebral palsy child who died at Sonoma State was removed and studied without parental consent. According to the CBS story, over 1,400 patients died at the clinic.[56]

In 1962, the Hanford site again released I-131, stationing test subjects along its path to record its effect on them. The AEC also recruited Hanford volunteers to ingest milk contaminated with I-131 during this time.[54]

Uranium experiments

“It is desired that no document be released which refers to experiments with humans and might have adverse effect on public opinion or result in legal suits. Documents covering such work should be classified `secret’.”

April 17, 1947 Atomic Energy Commission memo from Colonel O.G. Haywood, Jr. to Dr. Fidler at the Oak Ridge Laboratory in Tennessee[57]

Between 1946 and 1947, researchers at the University of Rochester injected uranium-234 and uranium-235 in dosages ranging from 6.4 to 70.7 micrograms per kilogram of body weight into six people to study how much uranium their kidneys could tolerate before becoming damaged.[58]

Between 1953 and 1957, at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Dr. William Sweet injected eleven terminally ill, comatose and semi-comatose patients with uranium in an experiment to determine, among other things, its viability as a chemotherapy treatment against brain tumors, which all but one of the patients had (one being a mis-diagnosis). Dr. Sweet, who died in 2001, maintained that consent had been obtained from the patients and next of kin.[59][60]

Thorium and radium

The Atomic Energy Commission funded the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to administer radium-224 and thorium-234 to 20 people between 1961 and 1965. Many were chosen from the Age Center of New England and had volunteered for “research projects on aging”. Doses were 0.2–2.4 microcuries (7.4–89 kBq) for radium and 1.2–120 microcuries (44–4,400 kBq) for thorium.[53]

Polonium experiments

The Atomic Energy Commission and the Manhattan Project funded the administration of polonium to 5 people at the University of Rochester between 1943 and 1947. The people were administered between 9 and 22 microcuries (330 and 810 kBq) of polonium to study its excretion. Eckhardt and Moss write that the people were volunteers.[53][61][62]

Plutonium experiments

In 1945, as part of the Manhattan Project, three patients at Billings Hospital at the University of Chicago were injected with plutonium.[63] One of these, Albert Stevens accumulated the highest known radiation dose to a human as a result of this experiment.

In 1946, six employees of a Chicago metallurgical lab were given water that was contaminated with plutonium-239, so that researchers could study how plutonium is absorbed into the digestive tract.[58]

An eighteen-year-old woman at an upstate New York hospital, expecting to be treated for a pituitary gland disorder, was injected with plutonium.[64]

Experiments involving other radioactive materials

Immediately after World War II, researchers at Vanderbilt University gave 829 pregnant mothers in Tennessee what they were told were “vitamin drinks” that would improve the health of their babies, but were, in fact, mixtures containing radioactive iron, to determine how fast the radioisotope crossed into the placenta. At least three children are known to have died from the experiments, from cancers and leukemias.[65][66] Four of the women’s babies died from cancers as a result of the experiments, and the women experienced rashes, bruises, anemia, hair/tooth loss, and cancer.[52]

From 1946 to 1953, at the Walter E. Fernald State School in Massachusetts, in an experiment sponsored by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the Quaker Oats corporation, 73 mentally disabled children were fed oatmeal containing radioactive calcium and other radioisotopes, in order to track “how nutrients were digested”. The children were not told that they were being fed radioactive chemicals and were told by hospital staff and researchers that they were joining a “science club”.[65][67][68][69]

In the 1950s, researchers at the Medical College of Virginia performed experiments on severe burn victims, most of them poor and black, without their knowledge or consent, with funding from the Army and in collaboration with the AEC. In the experiments, the subjects were exposed to additional burning, experimental antibiotic treatment, and injections of radioactive isotopes. The amount of radioactive phosphorus-32 injected into some of the patients, 500 microcuries (19 MBq), was 50 times the “acceptable” dose for a healthy individual; for people with severe burns, this likely led to significantly increased death rates.[70][71]

Between 1948 and 1954, funded by the federal government, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Hospital inserted radium rods into the noses of 582 Baltimore, Maryland schoolchildren as an alternative to adenoidectomy.[72][73][74] Similar experiments were performed on over 7,000 U.S. Army and Navy personnel during World War II.[72] Nasal radium irradiation went on to become a standard medical treatment and was used in over two and a half million Americans.[72]

In another study at the Walter E. Fernald State School, in 1956, researchers gave mentally disabled children radioactive calcium orally and intravenously. They also injected radioactive chemicals into malnourished babies and then pushed needles through their skulls, into their brains, through their necks, and into their spines to collect cerebrospinal fluid for analysis.[69][75]

In 1961 and 1962, ten Utah State Prison inmates had blood samples taken which were then mixed with radioactive chemicals and reinjected back into their bodies.[76]

In a 1967 study that was published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, pregnant women were injected with radioactive cortisol to see if it would cross the placental barrier and affect the fetuses.[77]

Fallout research

Cover of the final report of Project 4.1, which examined the effects of radioactive fallout on the natives of the Marshall Islands

In 1954, American scientists conducted fallout exposure research on the citizens of the Marshall Islands after they were inadvertently irradiated[78] by the Castle Bravo nuclear test in Project 4.1. The Bravo test was detonated upwind of Rongelap Atoll and the residents were exposed to serious radiation levels, up to 180 rads (1.8 Gy). Of the 236 Marshallese exposed, some developed severe radiation sickness and one died, and long term effects included birth defects, “jellyfish” babies, and thyroid problems.[79]

In 1957, atmospheric nuclear explosions in Nevada, which were part of Operation Plumbbob were later determined to have released enough radiation to have caused from 11,000 to 212,000 excess cases of thyroid cancer amongst U.S. citizens who were exposed to fallout from the explosions, leading to between 1,100 and 21,000 deaths.[80]

Early in the Cold War, in studies known as Project GABRIEL and Project SUNSHINE, researchers in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia attempted to determine just how much nuclear fallout would be required to make the Earth uninhabitable.[81][82] They realized that atmospheric nuclear testing had provided them an opportunity to investigate this. Such tests had dispersed radioactive contamination worldwide, and examination of human bodies could reveal how readily it was taken up and hence how much damage it caused. Of particular interest was strontium-90 in the bones. Infants were the primary focus, as they would have had a full opportunity to absorb the new contaminants.[83]

As a result of this conclusion, researchers began a program to collect human bodies and bones from all over the world, with a particular focus on infants. The bones were cremated and the ashes analyzed for radioisotopes. This project was kept secret primarily because it would be a public relations disaster; as a result parents and family were not told what was being done with the body parts of their relatives.[84]

Irradiation experiments

Between 1960 and 1971, the Department of Defense funded non-consensual whole body radiation experiments on poor, black cancer patients, who were not told what was being done to them. Patients were told that they were receiving a “treatment” that might cure their cancer, but in reality the Pentagon was attempting to determine the effects of high levels of radiation on the human body. One of the doctors involved in the experiments, Robert Stone, was worried about litigation by the patients, so he only referred to them by their initials on the medical reports. He did this so that, in his words, “there will be no means by which the patients can ever connect themselves up with the report”, in order to prevent “either adverse publicity or litigation”.[85]

From 1960 to 1971, Dr. Eugene Saenger, funded by the Defense Atomic Support Agency, performed whole body radiation experiments on more than 90 poor, black, terminally ill cancer patients with inoperable tumors at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center. He forged consent forms, and did not inform them of the risks of irradiation. The patients were given 100 or more rads (1 Gy) of whole-body radiation, which in many caused intense pain and vomiting. Critics have questioned the medical rationale for this study, and contend that the main purpose of the research was to study the acute effects of radiation exposure.[86][87]

From 1963 to 1973, a leading endocrinologist, Dr. Carl Heller, irradiated the testicles of Oregon and Washington prisoners. In return for their participation, he gave them $5 a month, and $100 when they had to receive a vasectomy upon conclusion of the trial. The surgeon who sterilized the men said that it was necessary to “keep from contaminating the general population with radiation-induced mutants“. One of the researchers who had worked with Heller on the experiments, Dr. Joseph Hamilton, said that the experiments “had a little of the Buchenwald touch”.[88]

In 1963, University of Washington researchers irradiated the testes of 232 prisoners to determine the effects of radiation on testicular function. When these inmates later left prison and had children, at least four of them had offspring born with birth defects. The exact number is unknown because researchers never followed up on the status of the subjects.[89]

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